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Scholars usually compiled all the dates published in the relevant literature and came to similar conclusions; that is, for many of the published samples, the archaeological context was at least dubious if not highly questionable: In Robin Derricourt published an impressive amount of data not only for Egypt but also for Nubia, the Sudan, the Cyrenaica, Libya, Chad, and Ethiopia in order to study interregional comparison and chronological synchronization. Derricourt also used radiocarbon data to provide possible links between the cultural dataset and climatic development Derricourt An updated compilation of Egyptian radiocarbon dates was published in by Ronald Long Long That current chronological frameworks may be changed based inter alia on the results of radiocarbon measurements was for the first time suggested in by Anatolian archaeologist James Mellaart.

He argued that the then available set of radiocarbon dates for ancient Egypt would fit a higher chronology, and he proposed to raise absolute calendar dates for the historical chronology accordingly Mellaart However, his suggestion has been fiercely rejected, not only by Egyptologists but also by Biblical archaeologists Kemp ; Weinstein The available radiocarbon dataset was again reviewed by Ian Shaw in , who, for the first time, used the Irish oak calibration curve that had become available just a few years earlier Pearson, Pilcher, and Baillie ; Shaw However, also Shaw thought that for many discrepancies between radiocarbon date and expected date, according to the Egyptian historical chronology, the actual error might be sought for in the methods of collection and analysis Shaw , Things slowly began to change in the mid- to late s.

A paper published in the journal Antiquity in by Fekri A. Hassan and Steven W.

Hassan and Robinson not only tried to base the Egyptian historical chronology on radiocarbon data but also compared the radiocarbon record of Egypt with that of the Levant; thus, instead of doubtful archaeological synchronisms, the authors began to reconstruct a coherent framework based on radiocarbon evidence, a process that is still ongoing. In , Georges Bonani and colleagues reported on the first systematic radiocarbon dating project that addressed the historical chronology of Egypt Bonani et al.

In the course of this project that was carried out between and , more than samples dating to the Old and Middle Kingdoms were analyzed. However, although all the results for the individual dates were published, unfortunately the project did not come up with any conclusions and therefore had a very limited impact on Egyptology.

Still the method stood on the fringes of the discipline of Egyptology, even in a volume that was especially devoted to chronology. Sturt Manning noted that far too few good examples of modern research programs existed that provided transparent, good, and useful data that actually could have helped to refine the Egyptian historical chronology. And thus the author concluded: Although up to the mids radiocarbon dating for Dynastic Egypt was almost never carried out in a systematic way with clear research questions, sampling strategy, and interpretation, since then, results of two independent projects set the radiocarbon record for Egypt on new grounds.

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Dee, and colleagues at the University of Oxford Bronk Ramsey et al. In general, this project provided results that are in agreement with the Egyptian historical chronology.


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Although this project primarily focused on establishing chronological synchronisms between Egypt, the ancient Near East, Cyprus, and the Aegean based on archaeological data, especially the first appearances of key-pottery wares see Bietak , it also included a subproject on radiocarbon dating, directed by Walter Kutschera. This subproject produced the most substantial sequence of radiocarbon dates that is currently available from a single site in Egypt, from Tell el-Dab c a, ancient Avaris, in the eastern Nile Delta Kutschera et al. Although at this time the question of what leads to this divergence cannot be conclusively answered, several lines of evidence seem to suggest that a major redating of archaeological phases and synchronisms within Egypt and the Near East might be in order see Manning et al.

The most comprehensive approach to radiocarbon dating the Egyptian historical chronology was the Oxford-based project directed by Christopher Bronk Ramsey published as a paper in the journal Science in and—with much more additional data and also including other approaches to chronology and radiocarbon data—in an edited volume in Bronk Ramsey et al.

This project was the first one to systematically employ Bayesian analysis of large sets of radiocarbon dates and historical constraints instead of comparing individual calibrated radiocarbon determinations with absolute dates proposed for the Egyptian historical chronology. For this project more than new high-precision radiocarbon measurements have been conducted on short-lived samples from secure archaeological contexts, which had been studied and dated by Joanne Rowland now Free University of Berlin.

Samples had to be retrieved from museum collections all over the world, because it was not possible to export samples for destructive analysis from Egypt. Although the probability distribution of an individual calibration of a radiocarbon determination can span over a century or even more one of the reasons why radiocarbon dating was so often considered as irrelevant to Egyptology , additional information can be employed in order to increase precision and to construct models that can be compared with historical estimates and that can be used as a chronological framework for the respective historical period.

Bayesian analysis allows taking additional information such as stratigraphy, or the known relative sequence of kings and so on into account. Such information is called prior information , as it is derived from sources other than, and prior to, radiocarbon analysis in the laboratory Buck et al. Based on this prior information and the radiocarbon measurements, a posterior probability for each individual sample and each additional event in the model, such as transitions between phases can be calculated.

The Oxford project also investigated the accuracy of radiocarbon dating in Egypt on samples of known age. From the University of Oxford Herbaria and the Natural History Museum, London, 66 samples of short-lived plant materials that have been collected from Egypt between c. Plants growing in the early spring absorb CO 2 of the annual low, whereas plants growing in late spring or summer as with European trees from which the calibration curve is based absorb from the annual high.

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This difference in the growing season between Egypt and Europe is most probably the reason for the slightly elevated radiocarbon dates for samples of known age in Egypt Dee et al. It is also important to note that this offset was accounted for in the models published. Three distinct chronological models were constructed, for the Old, Middle, and New Kingdom. For the New Kingdom, new radiocarbon dates from short-lived plant materials were used. In total, six models were run using different prior information.

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Warburton Hornung, Krauss, and Warburton Prior information included the sequence of kings and their respective reign lengths. Where there are different opinions on the respective length of reigns, several models have been created. However, it is important to note that by incorporating the reign lengths within the model, it is not possible to draw conclusions on reign lengths from the outcomes of the models because these are already incorporated. The models tell us that a radiocarbon dating is in agreement with current estimates of a high Egyptian chronology and that b prior information is compatible with the radiocarbon determinations.

As Michael Dee pointed out: For the Middle Kingdom, 42 new samples have been measured and four Bayesian models have been created, based on the high chronology as published in Shaw , the low chronology based on Hornung, Krauss, and Warburton, with additional models based on Kenneth Kitchen and Ian Shaw, where all outliers were eliminated Ian Shaw ; Kitchen ; Hornung, Krauss, and Warburton ; Dee a. The radiocarbon models are consistent with the high Middle Kingdom chronology and challenge the low estimates of Hornung, Krauss, and Warburton, even when the reign lengths of the latter scholars are used as prior information for the Middle Kingdom model.

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Radiocarbon data are thus consistent with the Sothic date of Berlin Papyrus A dated on paleographic grounds to the reign of Senwosret III for a recent skeptical opinion on using this Sothic date, see Schneider , — For the Old Kingdom only 17 new samples could be measured and especially the 5th to 8th Dynasties lacked suitable sample material Dee c. Whereas the radiocarbon model finds the high chronology in good agreement with the scientific results, there is a slight offset between radiocarbon dating and historical estimates for the 5th and 6th Dynasties.

The Oxford project showed conclusively that radiocarbon dating combined with a Bayesian statistical approach provides results that are generally in agreement with calendar dates from historical estimations based on the interpretation of texts. Although recent reanalysis by Sturt Manning according to higher reign lengths as proposed by Aston led to a higher start date of the New Kingdom around BC Manning , the difference is a few decades. At the same time, the radiocarbon sequence for the site of Tell el-Dab c a ancient Avaris in the eastern Nile Delta provided results that are in gross conflict with calendar dates proposed by the excavator Kutschera et al.

This difference of about years is of considerable significance not only for the site itself but also for our understanding of the history and development of Egyptian history and cultural development during the Second Intermediate Period and early New Kingdom. Indeed, many open questions regarding chronology and absolute dates center on this site and its links with the historical chronology. Because the site is of utmost relevance, not only for the history of the Egyptian Second Intermediate Period but also for linking the relative chronological sequences of the Levant, Cyprus, and, partly, of the Aegean to Egypt, we will discuss the site and the results of the radiocarbon project in more detail.

Tell el-Dab c a is located on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile in the eastern Delta, approximately km northeast of Cairo and 45 km west of the Suez Canal Bietak ; Bietak Excavations were conducted in several areas: However, the stratigraphy of the site is in fact a compilation of several different stratigraphies of the respective excavation areas.

The stratigraphy of the site allows for assessing the development of the stratified material culture most notably pottery that has been found in the distinct strata. To relate the excavated archaeological remains to the history of the Nile Valley, the local stratigraphy had to be synchronized with the Egyptian historical chronology.

According to the excavator, four so-called datum lines are of prime importance for this task, the 5th year of Senwosret III mentioned on a stela linked to the construction of the temple of c Ezbet Rushdi at the start of Str. K, the construction of a palatial building attributed to Khayan during late Str. K and the fall of Avaris transition from Str.

Samples have been obtained from Str.

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Additional samples come from Strata M to N dated to the early 12th Dynasty. I to L are not represented in the dataset. Red bars indicate the date of the respective strata as proposed by Bietak cf. A Bayesian probability approach was used to refine the individual calibrations. It was assumed that the short-lived samples are representative for their respective find contexts and that archaeological phases are in the correct chronological order. However, the sequence produces results that are in gross conflict with the dates proposed by the excavator. If Tell el-Dab c a had to be redated, also the absolute calendar dates for the relative sequences of the Middle and early Late Bronze Ages of the Levant would have to be adjusted, because much depends on the archaeological synchronisms with Tell el-Dab c a.

For a long time, Egyptology and radiocarbon dating have suffered an uneasy relationship. In the beginning, the historical chronology of Egypt was used to prove the applicability of the radiocarbon method, and for a long time Egyptologists were hesitant to take up this new technique due to larger error margins than what the traditional historical chronology could seemingly offer.

But due to continued technical progress, increased measurement precision, and new approaches such as Bayesian statistics, radiocarbon dating today can help to test and refine the historical chronology of the Nile Valley. However, Egyptologists and archaeologists should be aware that—as always in science and the humanities—there will never be a final verdict, for example, of when the New Kingdom started. Every chronological conclusion has to be understood as preliminary, because new finds and new radiocarbon determinations might challenge earlier results.

The great benefit of radiocarbon dating is that organic remains can be dated independently in different regions using the same method.

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We are no longer dependent on archaeological synchronisms between, for example, the Nile Valley and the Levant, Cyprus, or the Aegean to create a coherent framework of, for example, the eastern Mediterranean. So far, absolute calendar dates for the Egyptian Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms can be based on radiocarbon dates.

There are also a few sequences for the Early and Middle Bronze Ages of the Levant available that allow chronological synchronization based on radiocarbon dating see, e. The special case of Tell el-Dab c a with radiocarbon results that are about years higher than dates proposed by the excavator will undoubtedly raise discussions for the years to come.